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Angiosperm (e.g. flowering plant) form and adaptations

Angiosperms go a step further from ferns in their adaptations to terrestrial life. They, of course, possess all the specialised structures like roots, stems, leaves, cuticles, stomata, xylems and tough seeds, which enable water conservation and dispersal of seeds for reproduction.




In addition to all these adaptations shared with ferns, angiosperms (so-called because their seeds are enclosed e.g. in fruit) are capable of further adaptations to harsher environments, as well as adaptations that take advantage of other environmental niches.

Examples of these include wood formation (e.g. trees) as a xylem vessel adaptation, and specific dry weather adaptations seen in xerophytes (previously covered).

Unlike mosses and ferns, flowering plants produce resistant seeds that survive desiccation thanks to their tough outer coat called testa.




In moist conditions these seeds germinate. With improved strength against harsh environmental conditions, they can sustain great levels of stress and keep for a long time.

Ok byeeeee

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