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Tracheophyta (e.g. fern) form

Unlike mosses, ferns have differentiated parts i.e. true roots, stems and leaves. They are therefore better adapted to terrestrial life, and posses cuticles and stomata that enable better water retention.




They also possess a vascular system with xylem vessels, etc. Structural support is given by both turgor in cells and the woody xylem vessels alongside other structures found in the vascular bundle.

Some leaves on the frond are sterile, while others develop reproductive structures called sori. Sori are found as multiple circular structures on the underside of the reproductive fronds, and contain the spores within structures called sporangia.




Despite the many improved adaptations to terrestrial life compared to mosses, the fern spores are also susceptible to damage through desiccation in dry conditions. They germinate in moist conditions and are partially resistant to desiccation.

Ok byeeeee

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